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PDCA,没你想得那么简单!
发布日期:2019/4/10 | 人气:

    尽管,PDCA循环(或称作:休哈特循环)已经存在数十载,不过,该循环仍然是企业中最简单、最容易被误解的概念之一。中英对照,一文告诉你,PDCA没你想得那么简单!

     

     

    Although it’s been around for decades, the PDCA (or Shewhart) Cycle continues to be one of the simplest – and most misunderstood – concepts in business. 


    Introduced to the masses by W.Edwards Deming, many people don’t initially see the cycle as significantly different from the way they already work. 


    After working with the cycle for many years, however, I have found that most organizations do not even come close to truly understanding or applying a PDCA mindset.


    尽管,PDCA循环(或称作:休哈特循环)已经存在数十载,不过,该循环仍然是企业中最简单、最容易被误解的概念之一。


    PDCA循环,由W•爱德华兹•戴明博士介绍给民众的,很多人最初并不认为该循环与自己的工作方式有多大不同。


    然而,经过多年的循环工作,我发现大多数组织甚至都没有真正理解或者运用PDCA的思维模式。



    PDCA循环


    Americans generally follow a solutions thinking, rather than a PDCA approach that attempts to find the perfect solution and a “permanent” fix to a problem. 


    The high level of complexity among interactions within processes and systems, however, along with the fact that the world is in constant change, makes it unrealistic to think that permanent solutions to problems can be developed.


     The best that one can expect when facing an issue is to address it under current conditions and, once addressed, continue to look for recurrence and further improvements.


    美国人通常会遵循解决方案的思维,而不是试图去找到完美的解决方案和“永久”性解决问题的PDCA方法。


    然而,流程和系统之间交互的高度复杂性,加上不断变化的事实,使得认为能够制定永久性的问题解决方案变得不那么现实。


    面对问题,我们所能期望的最好的方法就是在当前状况下去解决,问题即便得以解决,仍然会继续复发,并且需要深入的改进。


    Besides the time it takes to seek the perfect solution to a problem, solutions thinking can give a false sense of security that a situation is permanently resolved. 


    As circumstances change, a “resolved” problem can reappear without warning and cause significant damage if the team has moved on and stopped looking for the condition to recur.


    撇开寻找问题的完美解决方案所需的时间之外,解决方案的思维还可能给人以一种错误的安全感,即:状况已经得以永久解决。


    随着情况的变化,“已解决”的问题可能会在没有征兆的情况下再度出现,如果团队已经继续前行,并不再寻找处理问题再次出现的情况,则会造成严重的损失。


    By contrast, the PDCA approach addresses problems as a potentially never-ending cycle. 


    Instead of seeking the perfect solution, one or more countermeasures are developed and implemented quickly to stop the condition from continuing to cause damage. 


    Since it is recognized that the countermeasure may not be a permanent fix or completely solve the problem, the team continues to monitor the process to determine the effectiveness of the change.


     Adjustments are often made to the countermeasures – and new ones developed – to assure the situation continues to improve.


    相比之下,PDCA方法把问题作为一个潜在的永无止境的循环来加以解决。


    PDCA循环并不寻求完美的解决方案,而是快速制定和实施一个或者多个对策,以阻状况会继续造成损失。人们已经认识到对策可能并不是永久性的解决方法,或者能够完全解决问题,因此,团队会继续监控过程以确定变更的有效性。


    经常对措施进行相应的调整,并制定全新的对策,以确保状况能继续得到改善。


    As the process stabilizes, the team looks for ways to further reduce the likelihood of the problem recurring (by addressing other potential causes) or tackles another problem plaguing the process. 


    Each adjustment leads to another fairly quick trip around the PDCA cycle that results in a more robust process and additional learning.


    随着过程的稳定,团队会寻求进一步降低问题再度发生的可能性(通过解决其他的潜在原因的方式进行),或者解决另一个对过程形成困扰的问题。


    每一次的调整,都会导致围绕着PDCA循环的另一个相当快速的过程,进而,让过程更加稳健,并能吸取额外的知识。


    SO WHAT’S THE DIFFERENCE?

    那么,区别是什么呢?


    The major differences between PDCA and traditional thinking include:

    PDCA与传统思维的主要区别包括以下方面:


    -01-


    Scientific Approach: A conscious effort to apply a scientific approach to improvement involves developing a hypothesis, testing the premise, formally evaluating whether or not the hypothesis was correct, and acting on the results. 


    Although the traditional approach relies on some level of hypothesis testing, the check step makes it a more conscious effort within PDCA thinking that, when applied over-and-over again, results in developing a scientific thinking mindset throughout the organization;


    科学方法:有意识地将科学方法应用于改进方面,包括:制定假设,测试前提,正式评估假设是否正确,并基于结果采取对应的行动。


    虽然传统的方法依赖于某种程度的假设测试,但检查步骤使得在PDCA的思维中更加自觉地努力,一次又一次地加以运用,使得整个组织中形成科学的思维模式;


    -02-


    Countermeasures: Within PDCA thinking, there is clear understanding that, although an action is an improvement, it is not necessarily a permanent solution;


    对策:在PDCA思维中,我们明确的意识到-虽然,行动是一种改进,但却不一定是永久的解决方案;


    -03-


    Speed: Since the effort is not directed toward the perfect solution, improvements are made much more often and at a much quicker pace. 


    PDCA is oriented toward a “just do it” mindset, where ideas are tested and implemented fairly quickly, even if the resulting improvement may be fairly small.


    速度:由于这项工作并非针对完美的解决方案,因此改进的频次会更高,速度也会更快。


    PDCA面向的是“就这么干”的思维模式,在这种思维模式中,想法得到了非常快速的测试和实施,即使所产生的改进也许很小。


    The quickest way to determine a group’s collective mindset is to observe how it addresses problems. 


    If discussions tend to bog down as the team searches for permanent solutions, it is a safe bet that PDCA is not the norm. 


    Also, ideas regularly “tested” and rejected in conference rooms rather than real situations is another sign of a solutions thinking mindset.


    观察某个群体如何解决问题,是判定其集体心态最快的方法。


    如果在团队寻找永久性解决方案的过程中,讨论趋于停顿,那么可以肯定的是,PDCA在该群体中并不是规范的。


    此外,经常在会议室,而不是在现实情况中“测试”和“拒绝”想法,是解决方案思维定势的另一个标志。


    PDCA VS 解决方案思维



     

    The exhibit shows another difference between PDCA and solutions thinking. Ideas and improvements occur much more quickly with PDCA than with solutions thinking. 


    Although each improvement is generally much smaller in scope than with solutions thinking, the rapid pace of improvements when applying PDCA results in far greater improvement of the process over time.


    上图展示了PDCA与解决方案思维的另一个不同。与解决方案思维相比,使用PDCA,想法和改进的速度要更快一些。


    尽管,每一项改进在范围上往往比解决方案的思维要小得多,但是在运用PDCA时,快速的改进速度会伴随时间的推移而让过程得到更大改进。


    Since processes tend to naturally deteriorate between improvement efforts, the longer the improvement cycle, the more deterioration that occurs. 


    Because of this, the fewer number of improvement cycles, the slower overall pace of improvement that will occur over time.


    由于过程往往在改进工作间自然而然地恶化,而改进循环越长,恶化的状况就越多。


    有鉴于此,改进循环的数量越少,整体的改进速度就会越慢。


    THE LEARNING ORGANIZATION

    学习型组织


    Another advantage of PDCA thinking is the amount of learning that takes place about the process during each cycle.


     Because solutions thinking deploys fewer improvement cycles and focuses attention specifically on the problem at hand, less learning takes place about the overall process. 


    The increased learning resulting from deploying PDCA throughout the organization further adds to the overall pace of improvement cycles.


    PDCA思维的另一个优点是:在每个循环期间,学识会在过程中产生。


    因为解决方案思维部署的改进循环较少,并且特别关注手头的问题,所以对整个过程的学识较少。


    通过在整个组织中部署PDCA,增加的学识则进一步增加了改进循环的总体速度。


    Those who fail to recognize the true significance of PDCA often require a good deal of coaching, reflection, and experience with the cycle to truly understand why it is different and how it can benefit the organization. 


    Without a certain level of transformation toward PDCA, however, the implementation of improvement methods like lean thinking or 6-sigma will be difficult, if not possible.


    还没有认识到PDCA的真正意义的人,往往要需要大量的辅导、反思和经验,才能真正地理解PDCA的不同之处,以及其如何为组织带来好处。


    如果没有面向PDCA进行一定程度的变革,而推行诸如精益思维或者六西格玛等改进方法又无法避免,那么将会状况会变得很困难。

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